In this book, the author says that "Almost everyone I met in Cairo at least once went through a period in their lives in which they were searching for answers to the "secrets of Allah". They searched for shafafiya, transparency."
In Cairo people might say "he has transparency". "Shafafiya is not a fixed state of being, but of becoming. One can never be transparent except ina certain context, for a certain amount of time, when Allah blesses you with some transparency. "Some people are more sensitive to the influences of angels and djinns, demonstrated by their having meaningful dreams and premonitions. These qualities can be developed and extended by trying to reach transparency." "Part of reaching this state of transparenct is personal effort but a greater part of it comes through Allah's grace.
The road to transparency is a journey into oneself. It entails serious questioning of what one is doing, why and how. But there is also the second element: the deepening of religious knowledge and its application as a moral standard."
Now when the politicians talk about the necessity of transparency, I will understand.